A must read Story

The old man shuffled slowly into the restaurant. With head tilted, and shoulders bent forward, he leaned on his trusty cane with each unhurried step.

His tattered cloth jacket, patched trousers, worn out shoes, and warm personality made him stand out from the usual Saturday morning breakfast crowd. Unforgettable were his pale blue eyes that sparkled like diamonds, large rosy cheeks, and thin lips held in a tight, steady smile.

He stopped, turned with his whole body, and winked at a little girl seated by the door. She flashed a big grin right back at him. A young waitress named Mary watched him shuffle toward a table by the window.

Mary ran over to him, and said, "Here, Sir. Let me give you a hand with that chair."

Without saying a word, he smiled and nodded a thank you. She pulled the chair away from the table. Steadying him with one arm, she helped him move in front of the chair, and get comfortably seated. Then she scooted the table up close to him, and leaned his cane against the table where he could reach it.

In a soft, clear voice he said, "Thank you, Miss. And bless you for your kind gestures."

"You're welcome, Sir." She replied. "And my name is Mary. I'll be back in a moment, and if you need anything at all in the mean time, just wave at me!"

After he had finished a hearty meal of pancakes, bacon, and hot lemon tea, Mary brought him the change from his ticket. He left it lay. She helped him up from his chair, and out from behind the table. She handed him his cane, and walked with him to the front door.

Holding the door open for him, she said, "Come back and see us, Sir!"

He turned with his whole body, winked a smile, and nodded a thank you. "You are very kind." he said softly.

When Mary went to clean his table, she almost fainted. Under his plate she found a business card, and a note scribbled on a napkin. Under the napkin was a one hundred dollar bill.

The note on the napkin read...

"Dear Mary, I respect you very much, and you respect yourself too. It shows by the way you treat others. You have found the secret of happiness. Your kind gestures will shine through those who meet you."

The man she had waited on was the owner of the restaurant where she worked. This was the first time that she, or any of his employees had ever seen him in person.

Note: This story is based on actual events experienced by a friend from St. Paul, Minnesota. The note is the exact wording on the napkin that she has kept in her scrap book for fifteen years. When a friend forwarded The Secret of Happiness to me I actually felt Happy reading it. Now that you have it, its your turn to do a good deed. Forward it on to all your friends and spread the happiness around. Believe me, its really really needed.



streaking lightly one side

Streaking your hair involves many steps and also uses bleaching of your hair and adding stripes of color.

Streaking Bands
Streaking Bands

There are many different methods of adding stripes of color in your hair. Highlighting is a method where two shades of hair, are added, by bleaching out and adding two different colors that blend together when hair is dry. Streaking on the other hand, uses larger areas to color that appear to be bands in the hair. This also requires bleaching out of the hair, but streaks can be placed only on one side, or as narrow or wide bands. Bands can also be more than one color, so it is not unusual to see red and blue streaks.


Using Foil

  1. Buy strips of foil in any Beauty Supply Store
  2. Select the size Streaking Brush needed for the size of the streaks.
  3. Decide how many streaks you want, and whether you want them on one side or on both sides of the head.
  4. Brush the bleach only on the strands of hair desired you want to be streaked.
  5. Fold the foil flat over the hair and set the timer according to the directions.
  6. Open the foil when the timer goes off, wash the bleached strips, pat them dry and now add the color onto the bleached out streaks.
  7. Set the timer for the time instructed, when it goes off, remove the foils and wash your hair,
  8. Buy the Streaking Kits that come complete with everything needed including the bleach. Some also include the brush. Follow the instructions carefully.

Using a Cap

  1. Buy a streaking cap at any beauty supply store. At the same time purchase the bleaching products you use.
  2. Pull the streaking cap over dry hair. The caps only comes in one size so make sure that it fits.
  3. Pull small groups of hair strands, as far up as the roots, through the holes with a crochet hook, or the hooks they sell in the beauty supply store.
  4. Realize that the more holes you use, the more streaks you will have. Use less holes, and less hair to get less streaks.
  5. Brush on the bleaching product to those strands of hair that are standing up from the cap.
  6. Apply the bleaching product to the strands of hair that have been pulled through the cap using a small brush.
  7. Wait the amount of time specified on the product packaging depending on how light you want the streaks to be.
  8. Rinse your hair and make sure all the solution is removed before removing the streaking cap,.
  9. Buy the Streaking Kits that come complete with everything needed including the bleach. Some also include the brush and the cap. Follow the instructions needed

Things You Need

  • A Streaking Kit of your choice for either method.


  • Follow the directions in the Highlighting Boxes for best results.
  • These instructions are meant to give you an idea of how to put the streaks in your hair at home. The directions on the boxes are geared to the specific strengths of the product itself.


  • Do not apply the product too heavily. Follow the directions inside the box.
  • Do not use a curling iron.

what is OB ? what are its different forms?

Organizational Behavior


Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.

As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc. Since many of these topics are covered elsewhere in the leadership guide, this paper will focus on a few parts of OB: elements, models, social systems, OD, work life, action learning, and change.

Elements of Organizational Behavior

The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.

Models of Organizational Behavior

There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:
  • Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
    Autocratic Organizations

  • Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
    Custodial Organization

  • Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
    Supportive Organization

  • Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
    Collegial Organization
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.

The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model. The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.

Social Systems, Culture, and Individualization

A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it.

Culture is the conventional behavior of a society that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices. It influences human behavior, even though it seldom enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations.

Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture.

                 Impact Of Individualization
On A Organization

High | | |
| | |
| | |
| Conformity | Creative |
| | Individualism |
| | |
Socialization |_______________|_______________|
| | |
| | |
| | |
| Isolation | Rebellion |
| | |
| | |
Low |_______________|_______________|
Low Individualization High

The chart above (Schein, 1968) shows how individualization affects different organizations:
  • Too little socialization and too little individualization creates isolation.
  • Too high socialization and too little individualization creates conformity.
  • Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion.
  • While the match that organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment. This is what it takes to survive in a very competitive environment...having people grow with the organization, but doing the right thing when others want to follow the easy path.
This can become quite a balancing act. Individualism favors individual rights, loosely knit social networks, self respect, and personal rewards and careers. It becomes look out for number 1! Socialization or collectivism favors the group, harmony, and asks "What is best for the organization?" Organizations need people to challenge, question, and experiment while still maintaining the culture that binds them into a social system.

Organization Development

Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment.

There are seven characteristics of OD:

  1. Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor's Theory Y).
  2. Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together.
  3. Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.
  4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.
  5. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.
  6. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change.
  7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.

Quality of Work Life

Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment. Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design. Some of the options available for improving job design are:
  • Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid environment or routine work. Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs.
  • Leave the job as is, but pay the employees more.
  • Mechanize and automate the routine jobs.
  • And the area that OD loves - redesign the job.
When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to follow - job enlargement and job enrichment. Job enlargement adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. This takes in the breadth of the job. That is, the number of different tasks that an employee performs. This can also be accomplished by job rotation.

Job enrichment, on the other hand, adds additional motivators. It adds depth to the job - more control, responsibility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlargement which simply gives more variety. The chart below (Cunningham & Eberle, 1990) illustrates the differences:

            Job Enrichment and Job Performance
Higher | | |
Order | | Job |
| Job | Enrichment |
| Enrichment | and |
| | Enlargement |
| | |
Accent on |_______________|_______________|
Needs | | |
| | |
| Routine | Job |
| Job | Enlargement |
| | |
Lower | | |
Order |_______________|_______________|
Few Many
Variety of Tasks

The benefits of enriching jobs include:
  • Growth of the individual
  • Individuals have better job satisfaction
  • Self-actualization of the individual
  • Better employee performance for the organization
  • Organization gets intrinsically motivated employees
  • Less absenteeism, turnover, and grievances for the organization
  • Full use of human resources for society
  • Society gains more effective organizations
There are a variety of methods for improving job enrichment:
  • Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. This differs from job enlargement which might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills.
  • Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This gives a sense of completion and responsibility for the product.
  • Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives.
  • Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions.
  • Feedback: Information that tells workers how well they are performing. It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else.

Action Learning

An unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgium -- it led to an upturn in the Belgian economy. "Unless your ideas are ridiculed by experts they are worth nothing," says the British academic Reg Revans, creator of action learning [L = P + Q] -- learning occurs through a combination of programmed knowledge (P) and the ability to ask insightful questions (Q).

Action learning has been widely used in Europe for combining formal management training with learning from experience. A typical program is conducted over a period of 6 to 9 months. Teams of learners with diverse backgrounds conduct field projects on complex organizational problems requiring use of skills learned in formal training sessions. The learning teams then meet periodically with a skilled instructor to discuss, analyze, and learn from their experiences.

Revans basis his learning method on a theory called "System Beta," in that the learning process should closely approximate the "scientific method." The model is cyclical - you proceed through the steps and when you reach the last step you relate the analysis to the original hypothesis and if need be, start the process again. The six steps are:

  • Formulate Hypothesis (an idea or concept)
  • Design Experiment (consider ways of testing truth or validity of idea or concept)
  • Apply in Practice (put into effect, test of validity or truth)
  • Observe Results (collect and process data on outcomes of test)
  • Analyze Results (make sense of data)
  • Compare Analysis (relate analysis to original hypothesis)
Note that you do not always have to enter this process at step 1, but you do have to complete the process.

Revans suggest that all human learning at the individual level occurs through this process. Note that it covers what Jim Stewart (Managing Change Through Training and Development, 1991) calls the levels of existence:

  • We think - cognitive domain
  • We feel - affective domain
  • We do - action domain
All three levels are interconnected -- e.g. what we think influences and is influenced by what we do and feel.


In its simplest form, discontinuity in the work place is "change."

Our prefrontal cortex is similar to the RAM memory in a PC -- it is fast and agile computational device that is able to hold multiple threads of logic at once so that we can perform fast calculations. However it has its limits in that it can only hold a handful of concepts at once. In addition, it burns lots of high energy glucose (blood sugar), which is expensive for the body to produce. Thus when given lots of information, such as when a change is required, it has a tendency to overload and being directly linked to the amygdala (the emotional center of the brain) that controls our fight-or-flight response, it can cause severe physical and psychological discomfort.

Our prefrontal cortex is marvelous for insight when not overloaded. But for normal everyday use, our brain prefers to run off its "hard-drive" -- the basal ganglia, which has a much larger storage area and stores memories and our habits. In addition, it sips rather than gulps food (glucose).

When we do something familiar and predictable, our brain is mainly using the basal ganglia, which is quite comforting to us. When we use our prefrontal cortex, then we are looking for fight, flight, or insight. Too much change produces fight or flight syndromes. As change agents we want to produce "insight" into our learners so that they are able to apply their knowledge and skills not just in the classroom, but also on the job.

And the way to help people come to "insight" is to allow them to come to their own resolution. These moments of insight or resolutions are called "epiphanies" -- sudden intuitive leap of understanding that are quite pleasurable to us and act as rewards. Thus you have to resist the urge to fill in the entire picture of change, rather you have to leave enough gaps so that the learners are allowed to make connections of their own. Doing too much for the learners can be just as bad, if not worse, than not doing enough.

Doing all the thinking for learners takes their brains out of action, which means they will not invest the energy to make new connections.